Pro – the Latin root meaning “for”
Biotic – the Greek root meaning “pertaining to life”
Probiotics are friendly, life giving microbes. These little guys are all the rage lately in human health right now. Science has only begun to scratch the surface of the life giving benefits of these microscopic organisms. Animal researchers are also exploring their roles in our dogs!
We now know that the gut microbes play a crucial role in the regulation of their host's health. Gut microbes:
This is just a short list of the many amazing benefits of a healthy microbiota. There have also been studies showing that there could be an early critical window in a puppy's life during which creating a diverse gut microbiome could produce life-time benefits. We aim to send all our puppies to their forever homes with a very diverse microbiome. From the time the puppies begin weaning to the day they go home, we offer our puppies a variety of whole-food pre and probiotic sources.
Anti – the Greet root meaning “against”. Change the prefix and now you have the well-known word Antibiotic. There are times when your dog will need an antibiotic, but now that you see the meanings of the roots, you can understand the importance of maintaining a health microbiome and especially bolstering it after antibiotic use.
Sources of Probiotics for your Dog
While you could give your dog probiotic supplement, studies have shown that a large percentage of the cultures die before the product is ingested. Feeding whole-food probiotic sources is a more reliable way to be certain you are getting plenty of healthy microbes into your pet. I like to top our girls' breakfast with a variety of probiotic sources to be certain they are getting a diverse set of cultures. These are my top sources:
*I am not a vet and this is not medical advice - but I do recognize that our vets are trained to heal disease. They receive very little training in using diet to maintain optimal health.
With January being the month of New Year's Resolutions and a focus on health, I wanted to do a series on dog nutrition. Early in 2022, we lost one of our mamas. It was a tremendously emotional experience, and I recently wrote a blog post about it. That experience along with changes we had made in our family's diet was the catalyst for me to change my girls' diet as well. It's important for me to feel like I am doing everything I can to give my girls the best health possible.
So first let's talk about protein. Protein is the building block of the body. It is the main component of muscles, bones, organs, skin, and nails. OUR bodies need quality protein and so do our dogs. The Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) recommends dog food contain 18% protein for adult dogs. I believe these percentages are too low for optimal health, considering the huge role protein plays. Based on the research I have done, I prefer to feed my girls around 30% protein. Here's a link to an article written by a vet on protein. He dispels a lot of the myths around protein and some the bad rap it has gotten in the past. He too promotes a diet of around 30% protein for dogs.
The downside is that protein is the most expensive macro nutrient, so I can understand why dog food companies would rather use less protein and more fillers. You can find the % of protein in your dog food on the back of the bag. I also like to note how much of that protein is from animal versus plant sources. Animal derived protein is much more easily digestible compared to plant-based proteins. Animal based proteins also contain a complete array of amino acids. You can see, in the picture, that the protein in this bag of dogfood is 77% from animal sources. I like to keep an eye on this ratio as well as the % total protein. I have poured over the ingredient lists in different dog food brands, and I decided that it is more cost effective for me to bump the percentage of protein my girls' diets by simply replacing some of their daily kibble with real protein. Not to mention, real foods seem healthier than the dry kibble from a bag.
We are blessed to have 2 pasture-based beef farmers within a mile of our home. I can get any cut of beef, including organ meats and meaty bones. Some other sources of protein I use are eggs, turkey, venison, chicken, Greek yogurt, salmon, and sardines. I like to rotate the sources. I do not currently feed my girls raw meat. It might be what I go to in the future, I just haven't thoroughly researched it. So at this point, I do still cook any meat I feed my dogs. I find it easy enough to put a large amount of meat (along with 10% organ meat) into a crockpot and slow simmer it overnight or for several hours. Once it's done, if there is a lot of fat, I'll drain the fat off. If the pieces are large, I'll grind the cooled meat in my food processor, but if it's fairly crumbled into bite sized pieces, I'll just bag it up once it's cooled. I like to fill each freezer bag with enough servings to feed my girls for 4 or 5 days. Then I freeze these packages. I try to keep one package thawed in the fridge that I can scoop out of each morning to add to their food. The whole process only takes a bit of prep work once every few weeks. I don't even need to worry about it tasting good (seasonings and such) because my girls aren't food critics!
If there is a day I forgot to set out a package of frozen meat to thaw, I'll feed my girls a can of salmon or sardines. Eggs are easy to crack open and add raw to your dog's diet. Also yogurt, especially Greek yogurt, has a fair amount of protein. Yogurt also contains probiotics, which will be the topic I discuss next in this health series. Follow along as I share my journey to feed my girls for optimal health!
It has taken me some time to be able to put into words how we lost our girl Maple. Anyone who has lost a pet, will understand the depth of these emotions. So here goes....
As Maple's last litter was nearing their going home date, I was becoming more concerned that Maple wasn't bouncing back like she normally does. This was her retirement litter. We were so blessed by the great mama she always was! But this postpartum period was different. She began turning food down - my girl Maple always loved her food, but other times as she'd weaned her puppies, she'd backed off eating, so this had me concerned, but not too much initially. Then I noticed her belly beginning to swell! I took her to the vet, assuming it might be some type of uterine infection or complication from the pregnancy that an antibiotic would remedy. Initially that is what the vet assumed as well, but her condition continued to deteriorate.
I spent most of the next few weeks at either at the vet's office or in daily communication with them. They sent us to specialists. They sent samples to the lab. They could not figure out what was making her decline so rapidly. All of the tests were inconclusive; everything seemed off “just a little.” There was no smoking gun. Postpartum infection? Something bigger – heart? liver? She was growing sicker by the day. At this point, traditional medicine was failing us, and Maple was fading fast, so our vet tried acupuncture, homeopathy, and even Eastern medicine remedies. Nothing was working. By this point, I was sleeping nightly by her side. Each evening my kids would say their teary goodbyes not sure if she'd be alive by morning. My vet finally decided to try exploratory surgery, could her bladder be punctured? We dropped her off amid another slew of teary goodbyes. This was her last hope.
The vet called us from the operating room – her liver was destroyed, possibly cancer? He couldn't confirm without a pathology report, but her liver was in bad shape. We gave the ok the put her down. She was sooo sick, and we couldn't stand to see her in pain any longer if there was no fixing it. We were stunned, shocked, our world was rocked. What had happened? We had just sent home her beautiful litter of puppies? How could this happen? What had I done wrong? I needed to fix this and not let it happen again!
I started with my vet. Asking many, many questions...he assured me we had done nothing wrong. If it was cancer, it happens, especially in golden retrievers. Their rate of cancer is much higher than other breeds. He said my breeding, pregnancy care, postpartum care was spot on. My next contact was the breeder that we bought Maple from. I wanted to check her lineage. She assured me that Maple's parents were very much still alive. She even still owned Maple's maternal grandmother who was still very healthy. My next stop was Google. Could it have been a rare thing called copper storage disease? I did feed her a fair amount of liver at one point before I learned the correct ratios of organ/muscle meat. Was it something I fed her? We won't know because we didn't think to send off a final liver sample. The first liver biopsy had been inconclusive. In hindsight I wish we had. I began following Morris Animal Foundation who is doing a Lifetime Study of Golden Retrievers trying to understand the high cancer rates in this breed. There are no conclusive results yet, but hopefully as the data gets crunched in the next several years, we'll know more. I did learn of some changes I could make that would/could impact all my girls' health and the health of future puppies.
First off is chemicals. I have never been one to use a lot of chemicals in our house, but my one crutch was Round-Up around the perimeter of the house and in the driveway. Ever since my husband had to take a pesticide applicator course for a job in 2017, he has loathed chemicals. Ultimately, he left the job partly due to the chemicals. He will not let a drop of anything touch our field and garden. But we agreed to disagree on care of the perimeter of the house and driveway. He allowed me to make the choice on that domain, and each year I would spray Season Long Round-up in those areas. After Maple's death, I swung heartily to his side. Round-up is a poison. Could she have ingested some after I sprayed? Could her ball have rolled into freshly sprayed weeds? We'll never know, but I now use a combination of vinegar and salt for my weed control spray. Yes, I do have to reapply every few weeks, but it's a small price to pay to know my yard is safe from poisons.
The other area I have changed is food. I began to view dry kibble similar to processed food in our human diet. We have all heard the woes of processed food. Could the bag of dog food I was feeding somehow have left Maple's body susceptible to illness? I have tried to get rid of most of the processed food in my family's diet, but what about my dogs? What exactly is in these bags of food? They are obviously filled with preservatives to increase shelf life. How do these added preservatives affect health? Do they inhibit the gut microbial activity that research is just discovering is so important? I dove into research mode, learning about the importance of protein which is the building block of cells. I learned about the gut microbiome and its impact on health. Current research is just beginning to scratch the surface of how a healthy gut can affect your whole body. I learned the types of food that build a healthy gut (a combination of prebiotics and probiotics). In the end, I am a realist. I am a busy homeschooling mama who is already making most of her family's food from scratch. At this point I have only been able to replace about 1/3 of my girls' diet with homemade foods, but I have been able to increase their protein intake and make sure they get whole food sources of pre and probiotics daily.
I also learned about the early window in a human and dog's life when the establishment of a healthy gut microbiome can have the biggest impact for life. Not only do I want healthy mama's, but I want to be certain I am doing everything I can to get these puppies off to a healthy start. First we encourage our mamas to nurse for as long as we can (balancing her health), because science shows her milk is best. Then when we do begin introducing food to our puppies we add it lots of whole food pre and probiotic sources to hopefully set them up with a robust gut microbiome that can have a lifetime of benefits.
We continue to mourn Maple; I have days that I can't believe she is gone. I look at her favorite spot and expect to see her lying there. Maple will forever be a part of our family. But we are enjoying new life. This year we kept a Golden Retriever from Willow's retirement litter. Continuing our tree themed names, we call her Cherry. The joy and busyness of raising a puppy has helped begin healing the hole Maple's passing left in our hearts.
Here are a few tips to make your puppy's first trip to the vet less stressful.
Before the visit:
Fall is a great time to train a puppy. Vacations and summer gatherings are winding down. Yard work will soon let up. With the school year starting up again, everyone is getting back into a routine. Puppies thrive on routines! I want to talk a bit about setting up your puppy's routine.
If any of you have raised a baby, you might be familiar with the acronym EASY. E stands for Eat, A stands for Activity, S stands for Sleep, and Y stands for You. This is a bit how you want to structure your puppy's day.
EA - Eat and Activity. Puppies are very food motivated, so I often combine the Eat and Activity parts. I try to use at least 2 of their meals as training times. The 3rd meal, I put in some type of puzzle ball/maze bowl. I have several different kinds and rotate them. There's no such thing as a free meal! Use your puppy's love for food to your advantage.
S - Sleep! I can not emphasize the importance of sleep enough. Anyone who has raised a toddler, might remember how that toddler got when they missed their nap time - unable to control their emotions. A lot of puppy owners misread their puppies. If your puppy has been up for awhile and then seems to get super wound up, no longer listening to commands, getting into things/digging, this means likely he needs a NAP! A lot of new puppy owners misread this thinking their puppy needs worn out more and try to keep playing with him. Remember how when you had a baby/toddler, the goal was to lay them down just as they were starting to get sleepy, so they could drift off to sleep on their own? That's the window you are going to be watching for with your puppy. As they are getting tired, you can place them in their crate or confined space with a chewy. I keep a basket of various type of chewies on top of their crate and give them a different one each time I put them in. They should chew for a bit, then drift off to sleep.
Y - You - now it is your time! I like their morning and afternoon naps to be pretty lengthy (Cherry's are often 3 hours in the morning and 2.5 hours in the afternoon) and towards evening, keep the puppy's naps shorter, in preparation for sleeping through the night. So that's plenty of You time! Raising a puppy is busy but more doable than you might think! Routine is so helpful!
You'll want to start thinking about the non-negotiable parts of your day and then build your puppy's schedule around that. For instance, if you have kids to get off the bus at a certain time of day, you'll want to plan to have your puppy napping at that time so you can focus on your kids. This is just an example.
I also find that just like kids are freshest in the morning and learn best then, so do my puppies. The 1st training session of the day is always their best! By evening, we just focus on reviewing commands she's already learned, playing, or going on a social outing. If you find that evenings are when you have to most time to focus on training, don't worry, it's not the end of the world. Most puppy owners work and evening IS the best time for owners to do some training.
You've totally got this! Raising a puppy can be EASY!
What is Puppy Culture?
According to the AKC, the first 12 weeks of a puppy's life are what is known as the critical socialization window. 8 of those 12 weeks are spent here with me! So how do we set these puppies up for success? We use a program called Puppy Culture. There are breeders who specialize in raising service dogs that start their puppies with Puppy Culture, that's the same type of success we aim to instill in our puppies!
Puppy Culture is a socialization and training program specifically developed for puppies, birth through the end of their critical socialization period, with age- appropriate protocols and lessons laid out in an organized format. PC is not a top-down training program as that would not be age appropriate. Puppy Culture is based on the premise that the puppy always leads the learning and puppies learn best by appropriate experiences at the appropriate time. We are conditioning emotional responses to encourage curiosity when encountering new situations.
I heard it said once, that if Dr. Spock and Maria Montessori designed a breeding program together it would resemble Puppy Culture. The best way to really "see" Puppy Culture in action is to follow the growth and development of one of our litters on our FB page. We try to document a lot of what we do in the videos/pictures. Here at On Papa's Farm we take our responsibility seriously!
After a lot of research, I have started feeding our litters these raw meat nibbles and patties by Answers Pet Food and here's why....
Scientists are just beginning to learn the importance of the gut microbiome! Early studies are showing that a robust microbiome is synonymous with a healthier life. There is also evidence that, at least humans, have an early window (during infancy/early childhood) where population of the gut microbiome can have even greater long term effects. So in case that is proves true and applies to dogs as well, I've added in these nibbles by Answers Pet Food to our puppies' diet. Along with the raw meats/organs, they contain various ground fermented vegetables and kefir. I am also adding whole food sources of prebiotics to their daily diet, like mashed banana, pumpkin, white potato, rice, etc.
Don't worry, they will be come home on traditional kibble, but I feel like if there is anything I can do to help set our puppies up for a healthy life, it's my duty as a breeder to try it!
Worst case - I'm spending a lot of $ on real whole foods that they love!